[AI] Learning Python ToC

Here’s a comprehensive list of essential learning points in Python, covering built-in functions, strings, lists, and extending all the way to object method decorators:

  1. Built-in Functions:

    • print(): Display content to the console.
    • input(): Get user input from the console.
    • len(): Get the length of a string, list, or other iterable.
    • type(): Get the type of an object.
    • int(), float(), str(), bool(): Convert between data types.
    • range(): Generate a sequence of numbers.
    • max(), min(), sum(): Find the maximum, minimum, and sum of elements in an iterable.
    • abs(): Get the absolute value of a number.
    • round(): Round a number to a specified number of decimal places.
  2. Strings:

    • Creating strings using single or double quotes.
    • String indexing and slicing.
    • String concatenation and repetition.
    • String methods like upper(), lower(), str​​ip(), replace(), split(), and more.
    • Formatting strings using f-strings or the .format() method.
    • Escaping characters using backslashes.
    • String interpolation.
  3. Lists:

    • Creating lists with square brackets.
    • List indexing, slicing, and negative indexing.
    • Modifying lists: append, insert, remove, pop, extend.
    • List comprehension for concise creation and manipulation.
    • Sorting and reversing lists.
    • Checking for membership with in.
    • Nested lists and multi-dimensional arrays.
  4. Control Flow:

    • Conditional statements: if, elif, else.
    • Loops: for loop, while loop.
    • break and continue statements.
    • range() function in loop iteration.
    • enumerate() to iterate with both index and value.
    • zip() to iterate over multiple lists simultaneously.
  5. Functions:

    • Defining and calling functions.
    • Function parameters and arguments.
    • Return values and the return statement.
    • Default and keyword arguments.
    • Lambda functions for concise operations.
    • Scope and global/local variables.
    • Recursion: functions calling themselves.
  6. Lists and Iterables:

    • Iterating over lists and other iterables.
    • List comprehensions for compact transformations.
    • map(), filter(), and reduce() functions.
    • Generators and yield for memory-efficient iteration.
    • Iteration using iter() and next().
  7. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP):

    • Classes and objects.
    • Attributes and methods.
    • Constructors (__init__ method) and instance variables.
    • Inheritance and subclasses.
    • Polymorphism and method overriding.
    • Encapsulation and access modifiers.
    • Special methods (dunder/magic methods).
  8. Decorators:

    • Understanding and creating decorators.
    • Using @ syntax to apply decorators.
    • Decorators for modifying and enhancing functions or methods.
    • Decorators with and without arguments.
    • Applying multiple decorators to a single function.
  9. String Formatting:

    • Using f-strings for inline variable substitution.
    • The .format() method for formatting strings.
    • String formatting options like alignment and precision.
    • str.format_map() for advanced string formatting.
  10. Error Handling:

    • Using try, except, else, and finally blocks.
    • Catching specific exceptions and handling errors gracefully.
    • Raising exceptions with raise.
    • Custom exception classes.

These topics cover a wide range of Python concepts, from the basics of built-in functions and strings to more advanced topics like lists, object-oriented programming, and decorators. Learning and mastering these concepts will provide you with a solid foundation to write efficient and effective Python code. If you have specific questions or need further explanations on any of these topics, feel free to ask!

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